Since 1974, Roundup has served as a popular herbicide amongst farmers, property owners, and gardeners. However, what was once hailed as the most popular commercial herbicide on the market has now been linked to cancer development and other life-threatening illnesses.
Numerous lawsuits have been filed and won against the manufacturer of Roundup, Bayer. The general allegation is that the key ingredient in Roundup, glyphosate, causes cancer and other serious health problems.
Regulatory bodies, like the World Health Organization (WHO) and the U.S. Department of Agriculture, have supported the findings that glyphosate may cause various health problems, including but not limited to Non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma, Parkinson’s disease, and Alzheimer’s disease.
Courts have also supported the evidence suggesting that Roundup is harmful to human health, ruling in favor of plaintiffs to whom they have awarded billions of dollars in settlements. This has led Bayer to agree to a massive, $10 billion settlement in response to mounting cases involving Roundup exposure, per The New York Times.
If you or a loved one was diagnosed with an illness following exposure to Roundup, then you may consider joining an existing mass tort or initiating a lawsuit of your own. A Roundup lawyer can handle your legal needs. Call the Law Offices of Anidjar & Levine today at 1-800-747-3733 for a free consultation about our responsive legal care.
Can Roundup Cause Lung Cancer?
Research from the University of Washington affirms that the primary ingredient in Roundup, glyphosate, increases the risk of certain cancers by as much as 40%. The university’s findings refer to glyphosate’s status as a “probable human carcinogen.” The Mayo Clinic also suggests that breathing in carcinogens is the core cause of lung cancer.
In other words, breathing in the chemical components of Roundup could potentially cause lung cancer, or at least increase your risk of developing lung cancer.
Johns Hopkins Medicine notes that there are two main types of lung cancer: small cell lung cancer and non-small cell lung cancer. The specific form of lung cancer that you or a loved one have developed could impact your prognosis.
If you suspect that your cancer diagnosis is the result of exposure to Roundup, then you may have grounds for a lawsuit against the parties that produce and sell the herbicide.
A lawyer can help you better understand what options you have for pursuing compensation and execute any plan that you agree to. Fighting lung cancer may be very expensive, and by initiating legal action, you can potentially recover the cost of your medical bills and other related expenses.
Can Roundup Cause Multiple Myeloma?
Findings published in Environmental Health Perspectives suggest a link between the ingredient glyphosate in Roundup and a specific type of cancer referred to as multiple myeloma. However, the journal notes that more research could provide a definitive answer regarding whether Roundup can directly cause multiple myeloma.
According to the Mayo Clinic, multiple myeloma:
- Forms in a specific type of white blood cell referred to as plasma cells
- Can reduce your ability to fight infections
- Causes the development of cancer in your bone marrow
- May cause symptoms such as bone pain, fatigue, weight loss, and excessive thirst (among others)
Your doctor may advise different treatments for multiple myeloma based on the specific details of your case. Complications of this cancer type may include bone-related health impairments, an increased rate of infection, and kidney problems.
Considering the connection between multiple myeloma and the primary ingredient in Roundup, you may have questions regarding your legal options. You may decide to work with a lawyer about seeking compensation to help cover the cost of your medical care. You may be able to obtain a recovery for other cancer-related losses as well.
What Types of Cancer Does Roundup Cause?
Research published by the Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment (OEHHA) suggests a link between glyphosate in Roundup and multiple forms of cancer.
The forms of cancer highlighted in the report include those affecting the:
Additionally, the findings cite myeloid leukemia as a type of cancer associated with the ingredient glyphosate found in Roundup.
If you or a loved one have received a cancer diagnosis, then you may be learning to cope with new, unexpected health complications. You may be personally undergoing one or more forms of treatment or may be assisting a loved one who has been diagnosed with cancer.
While your fight against cancer should be your foremost concern, you should also consider whether your cancer could be the result of exposure to unsafe levels of Roundup. The types of cancer listed above have credible links to glyphosate, and by extension, the weedkiller Roundup. A possible link between your cancer and exposure to glyphosate may entitle you to compensation for some or all of your cancer-related losses.
Can Roundup Cause Hodgkin’s Lymphoma?
Roundup is not generally linked with Hodgkin’s lymphoma. Glyphosate has, however, been linked to Non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma. According to findings published in Mutation Research/Reviews in Mutation Research (MRREV), cases of Non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma increased by 41% in individuals with high rates of exposure to glyphosate-based herbicides.
These findings suggest that people with high exposure to products containing glyphosate (including but not limited to Roundup) have a higher risk of developing Non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma.
The American Cancer Society (ACS) explains that Non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma:
- Begins in the white blood cells and proceeds to grow throughout your body’s immune system
- Is a term that encompasses several specific forms of cancer
- Generally affects the lymph nodes, which are located in your bone marrow, spleen, digestive tract, tonsils and adenoids, and thymus
Lymphoma may be either aggressive or indolent, as the ACS explains. Indolent lymphomas spread slowly and may require less aggressive forms of treatment. Aggressive lymphomas, on the other hand, require immediate and significant courses of treatment.
Dealing with Non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma may upend your life. You may be unable to work, could experience mental health complications, and experience significant discomfort as a result of your cancer treatment.
Can Roundup Cause Leukemia?
Research published by the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) states that there is “irrefutable research-based evidence that casual exposure to the chemical glyphosate” causes leukemia, among other ailments. The chemical glyphosate is the primary ingredient in Roundup, so this research suggests that yes, Roundup can cause leukemia.
The Leukemia & Lymphoma Society (LLS) explains that leukemia affects your blood cells and bone marrow. This illness causes changes in your bone marrow cells, ultimately stifling the growth of normal, healthy cells.
The LLS lists several different forms of leukemia that have been tied to glyphosate exposure, including:
- Chronic myelomonocytic leukemia
- Chronic myeloid leukemia
- Hairy cell leukemia (the specific form of leukemia cited by the U.S. Department of Agriculture)
- T-cell prolymphocytic leukemia (T-PLL)
- B-cell prolymphocytic leukemia (B-PLL)
- Large granular lymphocytic leukemia
These and other forms of leukemia will likely require many specific considerations in terms of treatment. If you have not already, you should speak with your doctor about the implications of your leukemia diagnosis. You may also discuss whether exposure to glyphosate could be the cause of your cancer diagnosis.
Call the Law Offices of Anidjar & Levine today at 1-800-747-3733 for a free consultation about gaining the assistance of a Roundup lawyer.
What Is the Cancer-Causing Ingredient in Roundup?
Glyphosate is the alleged cancer-causing ingredient in Roundup. The finding that glyphosate is cancer-causing is supported by the Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment. However, this is not the only organization that provides a connection between exposure to glyphosate and the development of cancer.
MedlinePlus, a government-backed source of health-related information, confirms that glyphosate is a danger to humans.
It states that:
- Glyphosate is a “poisonous ingredient” used in weedkillers, such as Roundup.
- In addition to cancer, toxic glyphosate exposure may cause symptoms such as kidney failure, coma, and abdominal cramps.
- You may require emergency care in the case of toxic glyphosate exposure.
Exposure to glyphosate in Roundup could cause other health complications than those listed here. Because glyphosate is a known carcinogen, you may have a case for seeking compensation from one or more entities based on the principle of strict liability.
How Do You Get Cancer from Roundup?
The National Cancer Institute (NCI) explains that cancer can result from different biological processes; exposure to glyphosate in Roundup may spark one or more of these processes. Changes in your body affecting three specific genes may lead to cancer.
Those genes are:
- Proto-oncogenes, which promote the normal growth and division of your cells and may produce cancer cells when they are altered
- Tumor suppressor genes, which are also intended to promote normal cell growth and, as their name suggests, suppress the growth of cancerous tumors
- DNA repair genes, which are supposed to repair damaged DNA but may play a role in causing cancer if their function is altered
Exposure to carcinogenic substances could cause changes in the genes that ultimately lead to cancer. The journal Environmental Health Perspectives elaborates on the specific interactions with glyphosate that may lead to the development of cancer.
Their findings suggest that glyphosate could be dangerous if:
- You have mixed glyphosate-containing products.
- You have “applied” glyphosate-containing products.
- You have interacted with large amounts of glyphosate or frequently used glyphosate.
This information suggests that if you used Roundup in any capacity, you could face the possibility of developing cancer.
Who Qualifies for a Roundup Lawsuit?
There is no fixed set of guidelines for who qualifies for a Roundup lawsuit. You may find out more about your eligibility by speaking with a lawyer or their team, as they may have experience with Roundup-related litigation.
You may have the grounds to join or initiate a Roundup lawsuit if you suspect that you or a loved one became ill because of exposure to glyphosate in Roundup. Speaking with a medical professional who is familiar with your diagnosis could provide additional insight into whether your cancer may be Roundup-related.
There is no clear information regarding the levels of Roundup exposure that may lead to cancer.
You or a loved one may have developed cancer if you:
- Sprayed Roundup
- Mixed Roundup
- Breathed Roundup, either knowingly or unknowingly
You may have the basis of a lawsuit if you developed cancer as a result of Roundup exposure. You may also have the grounds for a civil action if a loved one became ill or passed away after exposure to Roundup.
To learn more about seeking compensation through a Roundup lawsuit, do not hesitate to call the Law Offices of Anidjar & Levine for guidance.
Can I File a Claim Against Roundup for a Loved One’s Death?
You may file a claim against Roundup if it was a contributor to your loved one’s passing. Depending on your case, you may have the right to take legal action against the parties responsible for your loved one’s death. The grounds of your claim may be based on the principles of negligence, wrongful action, or breach of contract or warranty.
One or more of these standards may apply in the case of your loved one’s passing. The manufacturer and seller of Roundup, as well as other parties that may share liability, could be responsible for your loved one’s passing. If your case succeeds, you could be entitled to compensation for various wrongful death-related damages.
The circumstances of who may be entitled to compensation for wrongful death and what exactly constitutes wrongful death may vary from one Roundup-related case to another. A lawyer and their team may provide more details regarding your situation after reviewing the facts of your case.
Is Roundup Safe to Use?
There is contradicting evidence regarding whether Roundup is safe to use. At the heart of the debate about Roundup’s safety is its primary ingredient, glyphosate.
On the one hand, research published by Environmental Health Perspectives suggests links between exposure to glyphosate and the development of cancer. Findings published by the University of Washington also strongly support findings that indicate glyphosate exposure could significantly increase one’s risk of developing cancer.
Alternatively, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has reached a different conclusion about glyphosate’s safety, and by extension, the relative safety of using Roundup. According to the EPA, “there are no risks of concern to human health when glyphosate is used in accordance with its current label.”
In light of these conflicting reports, you may want to:
- Speak with one or more medical professionals about the dangers of Roundup
- Speak with a lawyer about whether you could be eligible for a Roundup lawsuit
- Consider this information regarding whether it is safe to use Roundup
There are numerous studies and institutions that refute the EPA’s findings that Roundup is safe to use. You may find that you disagree with the EPA’s findings based on published information and guidance from professionals whose opinion you trust.
Call the Law Offices of Anidjar & Levine today at 1-800-747-3733 for a free consultation about how a Roundup lawyer may help you seek the compensation you deserve.
What Happens if You Get Roundup on Your Skin?
The National Pesticide Information Center (NPIC) reports that if you get Roundup on your skin, glyphosate could be absorbed into the body. The organization notes that while it is unlikely that Roundup will cause severe skin burns, it could increase your risk of developing cancer.
The state of California requires Roundup to designate the product as containing a cancer-causing chemical (glyphosate) on its label, per Pacific Standard Magazine. Because Roundup has been linked to the development of cancer, if you get the herbicide on your skin, you should wash it off as quickly as possible.
Having Roundup on your skin could also lead to unintentional ingestion.
U.S. News & World Report dictates that Americans may be exposed to glyphosate through:
- Their food
- Their water
- Interaction with the chemical in a domestic or professional setting
If you or a loved one have been diagnosed with cancer, then exposure to glyphosate in Roundup could be a cause. Whether your exposure to glyphosate involves Roundup coming into direct contact with your skin or through inhalation may determine your eligibility for filing a lawsuit.
Is There a Safe Roundup Alternative?
Even without considering the health-related dangers associated with Roundup, Bloomberg Law has explained that the EPA suggests alternatives to Roundup because some weed types are proving resistant to the herbicide’s effects. The alternative ingredient that they have proposed is called tiafenacil, though it is not clear how accessible or safe this compound is.
There are several alternatives to Roundup that pose little to no risks to your health.
These alternatives include:
- Learning about the specific weeds you are trying to eradicate and researching methods most appropriate for that specific weed type
- Pulling weeds by hand
- Pulling weeds with the assistance of yard tools
- Incorporating non-aggressive weeds into your landscape’s design
- Learning how adjustments to soil may reduce or prevent weeds
- Using heat or flame in a controlled manner
- Using acetic acid or botanical oils
After learning about the cancer risks associated with exposure to Roundup, you may be interested in learning about alternatives that manage weeds. You may research possible alternatives to Roundup or other glyphosate-containing herbicides.
Can Spraying Roundup Make You Sick?
Spraying Roundup could expose you to toxic amounts of glyphosate and make you sick. The National Pesticide Information Center lists several ways that spraying Roundup could lead to various illnesses, some of which are life-threatening.
Some scenarios that could result in Roundup exposure include:
- A mist of Roundup is blown back into your eyes, ears, nose, or mouth.
- Roundup somehow gets into your water source, leading you to swallow the chemical.
- Roundup spray gets on your hands or skin, which may transfer the herbicide to other surfaces that you continually interact with.
- You touch plants or weeds that have been sprayed with Roundup, causing unintentional exposure.
Exposure to Roundup through spraying could make you temporarily sick. The National Pesticide Information Center notes that symptoms of excessive Roundup exposure could lead to burns, skin irritation, nausea, vomiting, and possibly diarrhea.
An even greater concern regarding glyphosate exposure may be long-term health consequences. Those consequences could include cancer, which may occur if exposure to glyphosate causes changes in your cells’ function. If you or a loved one developed cancer as a result of Roundup exposure, you have the right to work with a lawyer and explore your legal options.
What Other Illnesses Does Roundup Cause?
The journal Interdisciplinary Toxicology lists some of the ailments that have been associated in some way with the ingredient glyphosate in Roundup.
Those ailments include:
- Celiac disease
- Parkinson’s disease
- Alzheimer’s disease
Cancer is considered to be one of the most dangerous results of glyphosate exposure and could eventually result in an affected person’s death. However, some of the aforementioned ailments could also prove fatal if not properly managed. Even if these conditions are not fatal, they may significantly decrease your quality of life and lead to other serious health conditions.
Conditions such as Alzheimer’s disease and Parkinson’s disease may be particularly concerning. Mayo Clinic explains how Alzheimer’s disease causes brain cells to “waste away” in a degenerative manner. Though certain treatments may slow the rate of decline caused by Alzheimer’s disease, the condition generally worsens until the patient dies.
Additionally, the National Institute on Aging (NIA) explains that Parkinson’s disease can be similarly devastating. Symptoms may include uncontrollable shaking, muscle stiffness, and difficulty with balance and coordination, which become worse over time.
The risk posed by Roundup in the development of these conditions may show just how serious exposure to glyphosate may be.
Has Anyone Won a Lawsuit Against Roundup?
Multiple people have won lawsuits against Bayer, the current manufacturer of Roundup. According to National Public Radio (NPR), Bayer bought Roundup from Monsanto in 2018, quickly becoming embroiled in heated allegations regarding the herbicide’s safety.
The New York Times reported on a $2 billion judgment awarded to a couple in 2019 after a jury agreed that Roundup was a cause of their cancer.
The husband and wife both developed Non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma, one of the forms of cancer that have been associated with Roundup, after using the herbicide for years as a weed repellant on their property in California.
Prior to this ruling, a man in California was awarded $80 million in damages after a jury judged that his cancer, also Non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma, was caused by Roundup exposure as well. The New York Times wrote that the man had used Roundup for more than two-and-a-half decades.
In June 2020, Bayer agreed to pay $10 billion toward outstanding lawsuits from plaintiffs who believe that their or their loved one’s cancer was caused by Roundup, per the New York Times.
This sum is intended to settle existing lawsuits as well as to pay for future lawsuits. It also allows Bayer to continue producing Roundup with minimal warnings about its potential carcinogenic effects.
You or a loved one may be entitled to collect compensation through a lawsuit as well. Call the Law Offices of Anidjar & Levine today at 1-800-747-3733 to learn more about how a Roundup lawyer may advance your legal goals.
Why Is Roundup Still Being Sold?
There may be several answers to the question of why Roundup is still being sold.
One of those reasons may include that the EPA has yet to condemn glyphosate in Roundup as dangerous, instead stating that:
- Glyphosate is not a carcinogen.
- Glyphosate is not a public health risk if used in accordance with Roundup’s label.
- Glyphosate will continue to be a necessary tool in the production of food on a mass scale.
The EPA maintains that glyphosate is useful as a way to combat weeds, which is why Roundup is still being sold.
If there was a consensus that glyphosate is cancer-causing, then several developments may occur, possibly including:
- Glyphosate being outlawed as a weed killer
- Companies (such as Bayer and Monsanto) facing massive liability for cancer and other ailments linked to glyphosate use
The U.S. Food & Drug Administration (FDA) has not issued a recall on Roundup. The organization has delegated the oversight of glyphosate to the EPA, who maintains that Roundup is not unreasonably hazardous to human health.
The fact that Roundup is still being sold does not mean that it is safe. In fact, you may be able to recover compensation if you believe that Roundup has caused you or a loved one to develop health problems.
Can Breathing Roundup Make You Sick?
Breathing Roundup can make you sick, according to the National Pesticide Information Center.
If you breathe glyphosate contained in Roundup, then you may experience:
- Discomfort in your nose and throat
- Irritation in your nose and throat
- Burns in your nose and throat, depending on how extreme your exposure to glyphosate is
There may be several ways that you could breathe Roundup. You may unwittingly come into close contact with areas of a property that have been sprayed with Roundup and may even directly smell vegetation that has recently been sprayed with the herbicide.
You could also breathe Roundup before it has been sprayed. If you are mixing Roundup or smell a liquid substance that turns out to be Roundup, then you may experience unsafe exposure that affects your nose and throat.
Because glyphosate has been designated as a probable human carcinogen, it is generally in your best interest to avoid direct contact with Roundup. Breathing Roundup may, over time, lead you to develop cancer or other ailments associated with toxic levels of glyphosate. Multiple parties could be liable for your toxic exposure to Roundup.
Is Roundup a Carcinogen?
There are conflicting opinions on whether Roundup and, more specifically, its ingredient glyphosate, is carcinogenic to humans. Scientific American reported that a handful of organizations have deemed glyphosate as a probable human carcinogen.
The organization goes a step further, stating that there is strong evidence that glyphosate is genotoxic. The FDA reports that genotoxicity is when chemicals alter the composition of cells, resulting in the development of malignancies. The ability for a chemical (such as glyphosate) to change the way that your cells are structured could be a precursor for the development of cancer.
Despite these and other findings supporting the notion that glyphosate is a carcinogen, the EPA continues to espouse a different take. The organization states that “glyphosate is not a carcinogen.” It also remarks that glyphosate is not a public health hazard, so long as consumers use it as Roundup’s label states that they should.
There may be several potential explanations for these seemingly conflicting viewpoints. However, there may also be enough evidence of Roundup’s carcinogenic risks that, if you or a loved one have developed cancer, you may consider glyphosate in Roundup as a possible cause.
Can Roundup Damage Nerves?
Findings published by the U.S. Department of Agriculture suggest that glyphosate may be a neurotoxin when someone experiences acute exposure. Neurotoxins generally affect the nervous system, so yes, Roundup can damage your nerves.
The U.S. Department of Agriculture notes that:
- Glyphosate exposure has been linked to the development of Parkinson’s disease, which is a neurodegenerative disorder.
- Glyphosate exposure has been linked to the development of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children.
- Glyphosate should be examined further because of its potential to cause neurotoxicity in those who are exposed to it.
The Atlantic further discusses the general dangers of neurotoxins in humans.
It notes that:
- Americans have collectively lost approximately 41 million intelligent quotient (IQ) points due to the effects of neurotoxins.
- Neurotoxins can be especially damaging to the brains of unborn children.
- Neurotoxins found in pesticides may be among those that contribute to or cause ADHD and autism spectrum disorder.
While there remains disagreement about the precise dangers posed by Roundup, there is enough information available to doubt its safety. The potential neurotoxicity of glyphosate is among the reasons to be wary of Roundup.
How Do You Protect Yourself from Roundup?
The clearest way to protect yourself from Roundup may be to avoid using the herbicide altogether. You may research alternative methods to combating weeds, such as pulling them by hand or using non-chemical alternatives.
If you do choose to use Roundup, then you may take one or more preventative measures, including:
- Wearing hand protection
- Wearing eye protection
- Covering your mouth and nose in case Roundup mist blows back toward your face
- Accounting for the direction of the wind before spraying Roundup
- Washing your skin as soon as you can after spraying Roundup
- Washing your hands after spraying or mixing Roundup
- Refraining from touching foliage that has been sprayed with Roundup for as long as possible
- Not doing activities with your hands (such as smoking) while you are mixing or spraying Roundup
You may also consider the produce that you purchase and eat in terms of Roundup exposure. You should wash all produce thoroughly before consuming it, as you cannot be certain that it was not exposed to Roundup or another form of dangerous herbicide.
Again, the best way to avoid the dangers of Roundup and other herbicides is to avoid them completely.
Call the Law Offices of Anidjar & Levine today at 1-800-747-3733 to learn how a Roundup lawyer may help you or a loved one pursue legal action.
How Much Roundup Is Dangerous?
There is no definitive answer regarding what constitutes a dangerous amount of Roundup.
The danger that you face by using the product depends on:
- What you consider “dangerous” to be
- The type of exposure you experience
- Your personal biological reaction to glyphosate exposure
The National Pesticide Information Center notes that even seemingly mild exposure, such as getting glyphosate on your skin, could produce a negative reaction. From this perspective, you may consider even a small amount of Roundup to be potentially dangerous.
The amount of glyphosate that you are exposed to could affect the health consequences that you suffer. For example, breathing in a minor amount of Roundup may produce relatively mild symptoms, while swallowing a substantial amount of Roundup could cause serious burns and be a reason for you to seek emergency medical attention.
Previously-cited studies suggest that prolonged exposure to glyphosate, even if you are not swallowing it, may contribute to a higher risk of developing certain cancers. Some plaintiffs who have won lawsuits have been exposed to significant amounts of Roundup over a long period of time. Nevertheless, this may not necessarily be a requirement for you to obtain compensation for glyphosate-related ailments.
Did Roundup Change Their Formula?
There are no current indications that the current manufacturer of Roundup, Bayer, has changed the herbicide’s formula. Despite findings that glyphosate is dangerous, the formula for Roundup remains unchanged. This may be the partial result of the EPA’s continued defense of glyphosate.
Recent findings published by the EPA assert that:
- So long as consumers use Roundup and other glyphosate-containing products as intended, those products are not a risk to human health.
- Glyphosate is not a carcinogen.
The EPA states that spray height and wind drift must be considered by those who use Roundup. This assertion may insinuate that if Roundup was blown onto the sprayer or others by the wind, then there may be harmful health consequences. Still, the EPA maintains that Roundup does not cause cancer.
However, other credible agencies, such as the World Health Organization (WHO), have found that glyphosate does cause cancer. Others have suggested that glyphosate is linked to other serious health conditions, yet Bayer continues to sell Roundup in its unchanged state.
Call the Law Offices of Anidjar & Levine About a Roundup Lawsuit
Finding out that you or a loved one has been diagnosed with cancer or another life-threatening ailment can be a devastating event. Once you come to terms with the reality of such ailments, you may be facing substantial medical costs and hardship.
If you or your loved one afflicted by cancer or another disease have been exposed to Roundup, then that exposure could be the direct cause or contributing factor to your current health problems. The manufacturers of Roundup may be among those responsible for damages caused by your health problems or the ailment that your loved one faced or is currently battling.
If you are thinking about pursuing a lawsuit, then you may hire a Roundup lawyer to help you seek any compensation you deserve.
A lawyer may:
- Gather and analyze your relevant medical records
- Determine whether your ailment makes you a candidate for a Roundup lawsuit
- Help you initiate an independent lawsuit or join a mass tort
- Fight for the compensation you deserve
- Handle all possible aspects of your case
A lawyer can take on your case while you focus on healing. Call the Law Offices of Anidjar & Levine today at 1-800-747-3733 for more details.